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- The Koran - 130/136 -
31 Prayers for the dead were customary among the Arabians before Muhammad. See Freyt. Einl. p. 221.
32 The Mohadiers were those who fled with Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the Ansars his auxiliaries in Medina.
33 The commentators are not agreed as to the nature of this double punishment.
34 The fine of a third part of all their substance was imposed upon seven of those who had held back from the expedition to Tabouk. This is the fault spoken of in the preceding verse.
35 The tribe of Beni Ganim had built a mosque, professedly from religious motives, which they invited Muhammad on his way to Tabouk to dedicate by a solemn act of prayer. Muhammad, however, discovered that the real motive of the Beni Ganim was jealousy of the tribe of Beni Amru Ibn Auf, and of the mosque at Kuba, and that there existed and understanding between them and his enemy the monk Abu Amir, who was then in Syria, for the purpose of urging the Greeks to attack the Muslims and their mosque. It is to him that the word irsādan refers.
36 To the dwellers at Kuba. Verses 108-111 were probably promulged on the return from Tabouk previous to the entry into Medina.
37 Abu Amir.
38 Or, never stand thou in it (to pray).
39 The mosque of Kuba, about three miles S.S.E. of Medina. The spot where this verse was revealed is still pointed out, and called "Makam el Ayat," or "the place of signs." Burton's "Pilgrimage," ii. p. 214.Muhammad laid the first brick, and it was the first place of public prayer in El Islam. Ib. p. 209.
40 The Beni Ganim.
41 That is, up to the time of their death they will never reflect on what they have done without bitter pangs of conscience. See Weil's M. der Prophet, pp. 268, 269, and note.
42 Lit. limits, i.e. laws.
43 Shall have their recompense.
44 See verse 101.
45 Lit. turned aside, swerved.
46 Three Ansars who did not accompany Muhammad to Tabouk, and who on his return were put under interdict, and not released from it till after fifty days of penance.
47 Verses 120-128 probably belong to the period after the return from Tabouk to Medina.
48 While fighting for the cause of God.
SURA V.-THE TABLE [CXIV.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
O BELIEVERS! be faithful to your engagements. You are allowed the flesh of cattle other than what is hereinafter recited, except game, which is not allowed you while ye are on pilgrimage. Verily, God ordaineth what he pleaseth.
O Believers! violate neither the rites of God, nor the sacred month Muharram, nor the offering, nor its ornaments1, nor those who press on to the sacred house seeking favour from their Lord and his good pleasure in them.
But when all is over2, then take to the chase: and let not ill will at those3 who would have kept you from the sacred mosque lead you to transgress4, but rather be helpful to one another according to goodness and piety, but be not helpful for evil and malice: and fear ye God. Verily, God is severe in punishing!
That which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and all that hath been sacrificed under the invocation of any other name than that of God, and the strangled, and the killed by a blow, or by a fall, or by goring5, and that which hath been eaten by beasts of prey, unless ye make it clean by giving the death-stroke yourselves, and that which hath been sacrificed on the blocks of stone6, is forbidden you: and to make division of the slain by consulting the arrows,7 is impiety in you. Woe this day on those who forsake your religion! And fear them not, but fear Me.
This day have I perfected your religion for you, and have filled up the measure of my favours upon you: and it is my pleasure that Islam be your religion; but whoso without wilful leanings to wrong shall be forced by hunger to transgress, to him,verily, will God be Indulgent, Merciful.
They will ask thee what is made lawful for them. Say: Those things which are good8 are legalised to you, and the prey of beasts of chase which ye have trained like dogs, teaching them as God hath taught you. Eat, therefore, of what they shall catch for you, and make mention of the name of God over it, and fear God: Verily, Swift is God to reckon:
This day, things healthful are legalised to you, and the meats of those who have received the Scriptures are allowed to you, as your meats are to them. And you are permitted to marry virtuous women who are believers, and virtuous women of those who have received the Scriptures before you, when you shall have provided them their portions, living chastely with them without fornication, and without taking concubines. Vain the works of him who shall renounce the faith! and in the next world he shall be of the lost.
O Believers! when ye address yourselves to prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbow, and wipe your heads, and your feet to the ankles.
And if ye have become unclean, then purify yourselves. But if ye are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you come from the place of retirement, or if ye have touched women, and ye find no water, then take clean sand and rub your faces and your hands with it.9 God desireth not to lay a burden upon you, but he desireth to purify you, and He would fill up the measure of His favour upon you, that ye may be grateful.
And remember the favour of God upon you, and His covenant which He hath covenanted with you, when ye said, "We have heard and will obey;"10 and fear God; verily, God knoweth the very secrets of the breast.
O Believers! stand up as witnesses for God by righteousness: and let not ill- will at any, induce you not to act uprightly. Act uprightly. Next will this be to the fear of God. And fear ye God: verily, God is apprised of what ye do.
God hath promised to those who believe, and do the things that are right, that for them is pardon and a great reward.
But they who are Infidels and treat our signs as lies-these shall be mated with Hell fire.
O Believers! recollect God's favour upon you, when11 certain folk were minded to stretch forth their hands against you, but He kept their hands from you. Fear God then: and on God let the faithful trust.
Of old did God accept the covenant of the children of Israel,12 and out of them we raised up twelve leaders, and God said, "Verily, I will be with you. If ye observe prayer and pay the obligatory alms, and believe in my Apostles and help them, and lend God a liberal loan, I will surely put away from you your evil deeds, and I will bring you into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow! But whoso of you after this believeth not, hath gone astray from the even path."
But for their breaking their covenant we have cursed them, and have hardened their hearts. They shift the words of Scripture from their places, and have forgotten part of what they were taught. Thou wilt not cease to discover deceit on their part, except in a few of them. But forgive them, and pass it over: verily, God loveth those who act generously!
And of those who say, "We are Christians," have we accepted the covenant. But they too have forgotten a part of what they were taught; wherefore we have stirred up enmity and hatred among them that shall last till the day of the Resurrection; and in the end will God tell them of their doings.
O people of the Scriptures! now is our Apostle come to you to clear up to you much that ye concealed of those Scriptures, and to pass over many things. Now hath a light and a clear Book come to you from God, by which God will guide him who shall follow after his good pleasure, to paths of peace, and will bring them out of the darkness to the light, by his will: and to the straight path will he guide them.
Infidels now are they who say, "Verily God is the Messiah Ibn Maryam (son of Mary)! SAY: And who could aught obtain from God, if he chose to destroy the Messiah Ibn Maryam, and his mother, and all who are on the earth together?
For with God is the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them! He createth what He will; and over all things is God potent.
Say the Jews and Christians, "Sons are we of God and his beloved." SAY: Why then doth he chastise you for your sins? Nay! ye are but a part of the men whom he hath created! He will pardon whom he pleaseth, and chastise whom he pleaseth, and with God is the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them, and unto Him shall all things return.
O people of the Book! now hath our Apostle come to you to clear up to you the cessation13 of Apostles, lest you should say, "There hath come to us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner." But now hath a bearer of good tidings and a warner reached you. And God is Almighty.
And remember when Moses said to his people, "O my people! call to mind the goodness of God towards you when he appointed Prophets among you, and appointed you kings, and gave you what never had been given before to any human beings:
Enter, O my people! the holy land which God hath destined for you. Turn not back, lest ye be overthrown to your ruin."
They said, "O Moses! Therein are men of might. And verily, we can by no means enter it till they be gone forth. But if they go forth from it, then verily will we enter in."
Then said two men of those who feared their Lord and to whom God had been gracious, "Enter in upon them by the gate: and when ye enter it, ye overcome! If ye be believers, put ye your trust in God."
They said, "O Moses! never can we enter while they remain therein. Go thou and thy Lord and fight; for here will we sit us down."
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